Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem.
In the Name of Allah(swt) the Most Merciful and the Most Beneficial”.
“The Prophet (ﷺ) forbade praying after the Fajr prayer till the sun rises and after the `Asr prayer till the sun sets.”
حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي الْعَالِيَةِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ شَهِدَ عِنْدِي رِجَالٌ مَرْضِيُّونَ وَأَرْضَاهُمْ عِنْدِي عُمَرُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ بَعْدَ الصُّبْحِ حَتَّى تَشْرُقَ الشَّمْسُ، وَبَعْدَ الْعَصْرِ حَتَّى تَغْرُبَ.
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 581
In-book reference : Book 9, Hadith 57
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 1, Book 10, Hadith 555
Making up prayers at times when prayer is disallowed
✔Firstly – there are some times at which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) disallowed prayer. These are:
1 – From after Fajr prayer until the sun has appeared and risen to the height of a spear, i.e., approximately fifteen minutes. (al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 4/162).
2 – The time when the sun is at its zenith in the middle of the sky. This is a short time before the time for Zuhr prayer begins, approximately one-quarter of an hour or twenty minutes. (Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 11/286). Some of the scholars said that it was shorter than that. Ibn Qaasim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said that it is a brief time period, not even long enough to pray, only enough to say the takbeer to start the prayer. (Haashiyat Ibn Qaasim ‘ala’l-Rawd al-Murabba’, 2/245)
3 – After ‘Asr prayer until the sun sets.
These three times were mentioned in many ahaadeeth in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade praying at these times.
These ahaadeeth include the following:
1 – Al-Bukhaari (586) and Muslim (728) narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
‘There is no prayer after ‘Asr prayer until the sun has set, and no prayer after Fajr prayer until the sun has risen.’”
2 – Muslim (832) narrated that ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah al-Sulami (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:
“I said, ‘O Prophet of Allaah, tell me what Allaah has taught you and I do not know, tell me about the prayer.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Pray Subh (Fajr) prayer, then do not pray until the sun has appeared and risen… then pray for your prayer is witnessed and attended (by the angels), until the shadow of a spear points due north – which is the time when the sun is in the middle of the sky – then stop praying, for at that time Hell is stoked up. When the shadow turns – which is the beginning of the time for Zuhr – then pray, for your prayer is witnessed and attended (by the angels), until you pray ‘Asr. Then stop praying until the sun sets…”
✔✔Secondly: what is meant by making up prayers (qada’) is doing the prayer after the time for that prayer is over. The made-up prayer may be either fard (obligatory) or naafil (supererogatory).
Fard prayers: The Muslims must pray regularly at the times defined by Allaah for each prayer. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, As‑Salaah (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours”[al-Nisa’ 4:103]
Delaying the prayer until its time is over without a reason or excuse is haraam, and it is a major sin.
If the Muslim has an excuse, such as sleeping or forgetting, and he was not able to do the prayer on time, then he must make up the prayer when that reason no longer applies, even if that is at one of the times when prayer is disallowed. This is the view of the majority of scholars. See al-Mughni, 2/515.
The evidence for that is the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him):
“Whoever sleeps and misses the prayer or forgets it, let him pray it when he remembers.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 597; Muslim, 684)
Naafil prayers: the scholars differed with regard to making them up at times when prayer is disallowed. The correct view is that they should be made up. This is the view of al-Shaafa’i (may Allaah have mercy on him). See al-Majmoo’, 4/170. It was also the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him), as stated in al-Fataawa, 23/127. This is indicated by a number of ahaadeeth, such as:
The report narrated by al-Bukhaari (1233) and Muslim (834) from Umm Salamah (may Allaah be pleased with her), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed two rak’ahs after ‘Asr, and she asked him about that. He said: “Some people from ‘Abd al-Qays came to me and distracted me from praying two rak’ahs after Zuhr, so I did them now.”
Ibn Maajah (1154) narrated that Qays ibn ‘Amr said: the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw a man praying two rak’ahs after he had prayed Fajr prayer. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Are you praying Fajr twice?” The man said to him, “I did not pray the two rak’ahs that come before it, so I prayed them now.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) remained silent. This was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani inSaheeh Ibn Maajah (984).
Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) remained silent indicates that it is permissible. (al-Mughni, 2/532).
And Allaah knows best. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and grant him peace.